The following list details peer-reviewed research publications. To view the abstract for any of the following items, please follow the associated link.
Anderson, L. I. 1994. Xiphosurans from the Westphalian D of the Radstock Basin, Somerset Coalfield, the South Wales Coalfield and Mazon Creek, Illinois. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 105, 265-275.
Anderson, L. I. 1995. Stone Cold Fusion in the Xiphosura. Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs
Anderson, L. I. and Horrocks, C. 1995. Valloisella lievinensis Rachebouef, 1992 from the Westphalian B of England. Neues Jahrbuch fur Geologie und Palaontologie, (11), 647-658.
Braddy, S. J. and Anderson, L. I. 1996. An Upper Carboniferous eurypterid trackway from Mostyn, Wales. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 107, 51-56.
Anderson, L. I. & Selden, P. A. 1997. Opisthosomal fusion and phylogeny of Palaeozoic Xiphosura. Lethaia, 30 , 19-31
Anderson, L. I. 1996. Taxonomy and Taphonomy of Palaeozoic Xiphosura. Unpublished thesis, University of Manchester.
Anderson, L. I. 1997. The xiphosuran Liomesaspis from the Montceau-les-Mines Konservat Lagerstatte, Massif Central, France. Neues Jahrbuch fur Geologie und Palaontologie, Abh., 204, 415-436
Anderson, L. I. et al 1997. Exceptionally preserved fossils from Bickershaw, Lancashire UK (Upper Carboniferous, Westphalian A (Langsettian)) Geological Journal, 32, 197-210.
Anderson, L. I., Poschmann, M. & Brauckmann, C. 1998. On the Emsian (Lower Devonian) arthropods of the Rhenish Slate Mountains: 2. The synziphosurine Willwerathia. Palaontologische Zeitschrift, 72, 325-336.
Anderson, L. I. 1998. A new specimen of the Silurian synziphosurine Cyamocephalus. Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, 110, 211-216.
Dunlop, J. A., Anderson, L. I. and Braddy, S. J. 1999. Forfarella mitchelli gen. et sp. nov., a chasmataspid from the Lower Devonian of the Midland Valley of Scotland. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, 89, 161-165.
Anderson, L. I., Dunlop, J. A., Eagar, R. M. C., Horrocks, C. A. and Wilson, H. M. 1999. Soft-bodied fossils from the roof shales of the Wigan Four Foot coal, Westhoughton, Lancashire, UK. Geological Magazine, 135, (3), 321-329.
Anderson, L. I., Dunlop, J. A. and Trewin, N. H. 2000. A Middle Devonian chasmataspid arthropod from Achanarras Quarry, Caithness, Scotland. Scottish Journal of Geology, 36, 151-158.
Dunlop, J. A., Anderson, L. I. and Braddy 1999. A new chasmataspid (Chelicerate: Chasmataspida) from the Lower Devonian of the Midland Valley of Scotland. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, 89, 161-165.
Dunlop, J. A., Poschmann, M. and Anderson, L. I. 2001. On the Emsian (Early Devonian) arthropods of the Rhenish Slate Mountains: 3.The Chasmataspidid Diploaspis.Palaontologische Zeitschrift, 75, 253-269.
Racheboeuf, P. R., Vannier, J. and Anderson, L. I. 2002. A new three-dimensionally preserved xiphosuran chelicerate from the Montceau-les-mines Lagerstatte (Carboniferous, France). Palaeontology, 45, 125-147.
Rice, C. M., Trewin, N. H. and Anderson, L. I. 2002. Stratigraphy and structural setting of the Early Devonian Rhynie cherts, Aberdeenshire, Scotland: An early terrestrial hot spring system. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 159, 203-214.
Anderson, L. I. and Trewin, N. H 2003. An Early Devonian arthropod fauna from the Windyfield cherts, Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Palaeontology, 46, 467-509.
Dunlop, J. A., Anderson, L. I., Kerp, H. and Hass, H. 2003. Preserved organs of Devonian harvestmen. Nature, 425, 196.
Wilson, H. M and Anderson, L. I. 2004. Morphology and taxonomy of Paleozoic millipedes (Diplopoda: Chilognatha: Archipolypoda) from Scotland. Journal of Paleontology, 78, 169-184.
Anderson, L. I. and Shuster, C. N. 2004 In "The American Horseshoe crab", Shuster, C. N, Barlow, R. B and Brockmann, J. Eds. Harvard University Press, 488pp.
Shuster, C. N. and Anderson, L. I. 2004 In "The American Horseshoe crab", Shuster, C. N, Barlow, R. B and Brockmann, J. Eds. Harvard University Press, 488pp.
Anderson, L. I. and Moore, R. A. 2004. Bembicosoma re-examined: a xiphosuran from the North Esk Silurian Inlier, Pentland Hills, Scotland. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Science, 94, 119-206.
Dunlop, J. A., Anderson, L. I., Braddy, S. J. 2004. A redescription of Chasmataspis laurencii Caster & Brooks, 1956 (Chelicerata: Chasmataspidida) from the Middle Ordovician of Tennessee, USA, with remarks on chasmataspid phylogeny. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, 94, 207-225.
Anderson, L. I., Crighton, W. R. B. and Hass, H. (2004) A new crustacean with ‘cladoceran’ affinities from the Early Devonian (Pragian) Rhynie chert hot-spring complex. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, 94, (part 4), 355-369.
Dunlop, J. A., Anderson, L. I., Kerp, H. and Hass, H. (2004) A harvestman (Arachnida: Opiliones) from the Early Devonian Rhynie cherts, Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, 94, (part 4), 341-353.
Anderson, L. I. (in press) “Hugh Miller: introducing palaeobotany to a wider audience” Geological Society Special Publication, invited paper for thematic volume.
Poschmann, M., Dunlop, J. A., and Anderson, L. I. (in press) A remarkable chelicerate fauna (Arthropoda, Chelicerata) and the oldest record of phalangiotarbids (Arachnida, Phalangiotarbida) from the Siegen-beds (Lower Devonian) of the Westerwald area (Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany). Journal of Paleontology
Moore, R. A., Briggs, D. E. G., Braddy, S. J., Anderson, L. I., Mikulic,D. G., and Kluessendorf, J. (in press) A new synziphosurine (Chelicerata: Xiphosura) from the late Llandovery Waukesha Lagerstätte, Wisconsin, U.S.A. Journal of Paleontology
Tetlie, O. E., Anderson, L. I. and Poschmann, M. (in review) Kiaeropterus (Eurypterida; Stylonurina) recognised from the Silurian of the Pentland Hills, Scotland. Scottish Journal of Geology
Euproops kilmersdonensis Ambrose and Romano, 1972 is proposed as a synonym of Euproops danae (Meek and Worthen, 1865) from Mazon Creek, Illinois. Five other species attributed to Euproops (Meek, 1867) and one species attributed to Prestwichianella nitida Dix and Pringle (1929) , from the Westphalian D of the South Wales Coalfield, described by Dix and Pringle (1929, 1930) are also synonymized with E. danae. In addition, six species described by Raymond (1944) from Mazon Creek are synonymized with E. danae. The taphonomic processes acting upon xiphosuran body fossils produce spurious morphological differences between specimens, which have been used in the past to define species. It is concluded that species diversity within the Carboniferous Xiphosura was low, contrary to previous reports (Fisher, 1984). The mode of life of E. danae is re-evaluated in the light of trace fossils recently described by Pollard and Hardy (1991) from Writhlington Geological Nature Reserve, and from palaeophysiological considerations.
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Re-examination of extensive museum collections of xiphosuran (horseshoe crab) body fossils from the Upper Carboniferous of America and Europe has revealed the presence of excessive taxonomic oversplitting based on relatively trivial morphological differences, some of which are interpreted as being taphonomic in origin, introduced during compressional deformation. The importance of evaluating the taphomonic history of xiphosurans, or for that matter any arthropod with a poorly mineralized exoskeleton, prior to taxonomic assignment and subsequent systematic placement is stressed.
Aditionally, study of all species' holotypes of the Upper Carboniferous genus Bellinurus suggests that certain aspects of the current published descriptions of this common European form are incorrect. Previously considered to possess an opisthosoma comprising of five freely articulating tergites and three, fused, posterior tergites, evidence is presented which radically challenges this view. Studies of enrolled Bellinurus suggests that full fusion of the opisthosomal tergites had been acheived in this form. This has important consequences for the enrollment behavior of the animal. Instead of enrolling spheroidally, facilitated by the presence of freely articulating tergites, in the manner of the synziphosurans Legrandella and Pseudoniscus, Bellinurus enrolls in a similar way to both Euproops and Pringlia. Body evidence from the former USSR suggests that this fusion event may have happened as early as the Upper Devonian.
The recognition of a fully fused opisthosomal tergite cover in Bellinurus, previously an autapomorphy of Euproopacea, necessitates the abandonment of the threefold superfamilial division of Euproopacea, Bellinuracea and Limulacea and the reinstatement of suborders Bellinurina and Limulina. Full opisthosomal fusion is proposed as an autapomorphy of Xiphosurida.
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A trackway previously attributed to the activities of an ambulatory fish (Buckland (1843) Proceedings of the Geological Society, 4, 204) is reinterprted as that of a large heteropodous arthropod utilizing a hexapodous gait, the most likely candidate being a eurypterid. The trackway is assigned to Palmichnium pottsae ichnosp. nov.
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Two small xiphosurans are described from geographically separate Westphalian B sites in England and assigned to Valloisella lievinensis Racheboeuf, 1992. Valloisella is removed from Euproopidae Eller, 1938 and placed in Paleolimulidae Raymond, 1944.
Zwei kleine Xiphosuren aus geographisch getrennten Fundorten in England (Alter: Westfal B) werden beschrieben und der Art Valloisella lievinensis Rachebouef, 1992 zugeordnet. Valloisella wird von den Euproopidae Eller, 1938 in die Paleolimulidae Raymond, 1994 ubertragen.
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Fusion of opisthosomal tergites to form a thoracetron has previously been considered a characteristic of the xiphosuran superfamilies Euproopoidea Eller, 1938 and Limuloidea Zittel, 1885. Evidence is presented here that fusion also occurs in Bellinuroidea Zittel & Eastman, 1913. Results of a cladistic analysis of Palaeozoic xiphosuran genera indicate that Synziphosurina Packard, 1886, is a paraphyletic assemblage of stem-group Xiphosura. Superfamily Paleolimulidae superfam. nov. is erected for families Paleolimulidae Raymond, 1944 and Moravuridae Pribyl, 1967.
An investigation of the Palaeozoic Xiphosura has resulted in a revised taxonomy based on re-examination of extensive material in museum collections, private collections, new specimens collected in the field, and a wide ranging literature review.
The understanding of the taphonomy of arthropods with unmineralised exoskeletons is pivotal to the correct interpretation of fossil xiphosurans. Post mortem compressional deformation of pliable cuticle allows the introduction of spurious morphological details which have in the past been used to define fossil species; a process identified in this study as the primary cause of excessive taxonomic splitting. Additionally, environmental specific conditions are required for the preservation of unmineralised arthropod cuticle. Either high rates of burial coupled with early diagenetic nodule formation, or low rates of sedimentation and anoxic bottom waters satisfy these criteria. Both of these scenarios exclude scavengers and/or intense bioturbation which could potentially scatter or break up the exoskeleton. As a result, xiphosuran body fossils are most commonly recorded from Konservat-Lagerstätten deposits.
A study of the palaeoecology of the Xiphosura along with a review of trace fossils produced by xiphosurans suggests that the evidence for freshwater lineages of xiphosurans is at best equivocal. The tolerance of xiphosurans to brackish water conditions observed today was also present in fossil forms, and probably allowed movement of the animals upstream from river mouths. In these brackish water regions, conditions were suitable for the preservation of unmineralised cuticle. As a result of this bias, xiphosuran body and trace fossils are more likely to be found in marginal marine to freshwater settings.
New descriptions and morphological reconstructions of all Palaeozoic xiphosurans are presented. The opisthosomal tergites of the Upper Carboniferous genus Bellinurus are recognised as being fully fused to form a thoracetron; an observation which has wide ranging implications for the phylogeny of Xiphosura. Previous to this study, only members of Limuloidea and Euproopoidea were thought to possess a thoracetron. A cladistic analysis based on the new morphological descriptions has produced a cladogram which redefines Xiphosura to exclude a number of pre-Ordovician merostomoids of questionable affinity. Synziphosurines are identified as a paraphyletic group of xiphosurans which share a number of plesiomorphies, including lack of a thoracetron. Xiphosurids are recognised by the presence of a thoracetron. Order Xiphosurida is further subdivided into two suborders; Bellinurina and Limulina. The last members of Suborder Bellinurina are recorded from the Lower Permian whilst members of Suborder Limulina persist to the present day. Possible evolutionary trends in the xiphosuran fossil record identified here are: progressive loss of visible opisthosomal segments at tagma boundaries; fusion of the opisthosomal segments to form a thoracetron; differentiation of the opercular tergite belonging to somite VIII and a trend towards the prosoma and opisthosoma becoming equal to sub-equal in axial length.
Identification of plesiomorphic character states in Xiphosura suggests a possible scheme of phylogenetic relationships between xiphosurans, eurypterids and arachnids. Possession of a postabdominal region of three cylindrical segments formed from fused tergites and sternites is a synapomorphy of early synziphosurines and non-scorpion arachnids suggesting that they shared a common ancestor. Scorpions were separately derived from other chelicerate stock, probably an early eurypterid. The similarities in morphology observed between some trilobites and xiphosurans is due to convergent evolution of structures in adaptation to a predominantly benthic niche, rather than close phylogenetic relationship. The Palaeozoic members of Class Xiphosura are revised and are recognised as consisting of 24 species in 18 genera. Class Xiphosura is proposed as comprising of Lemoneitidae, Weinberginidae, Bunodidae, Pseudoniscidae and Kasibelinuridae; all referred to informally as synziphosurines and Order Xiphosurida. The Palaeozoic Xiphosurida are subdivided into two suborders; Bellinurina consisting of Bellinuridae and Euproopidae and Limulina consisting of Bellinuroopsidae fam. nov., Rolfeiidae and Paleolimulidae. No new species are erected.
Die Xiphosuren-Art Liomesaspis laevis Raymond, 1944 wird aus dem Stephanium B der Konservat-Lagerstatte Montceau-les-Mines in Frankreich beschrieben. Der Vergleich mit dem Typus-Material von Raymond (1944) zeigt, das Anacontium brevis, A. carpenteri, Palatinaspis beimbaueri, Pringlia bispinosa, P. demaisteri, und P. fritschi jungere Synonyme von Liomesaspis sind. Velthemia bicornis wird als nomen nudum angesehem; das unter diesem Namen beschriebene Material gehort zu Liomesaspis laevis. Die fruher herausgestellten taxonomischen Differenzen zwischen diesen Formen beruhen auf Ungenauigkeiten bei der Erstbeschreibung von Liomespaspis laevis und unterschiedlicher Erhaltung des spater bearbeiteten Materials. Obwohl das Becken von Montceau-les-Mines uberwiegend limnisch gepragt war, sind mit Liomesaspis auch euryhaline marine Organismen in dieses Becken eingedrungen.
Abstract: Willwerathia laticeps (Stormer 1936) originally described as a eurypterid is reinterpreted as a synziphosurine belonging to Family Weinberginidae Richter and Richter 1929. Recently collected material from the locality, from which the destroyed holotype comes, suggests that Willwerathia possessed ten opisthosomal tergites, deduced from all available arrays of disarticulates. Willwerathia is the largest synziphosurine yet discovered with a carapace approximately 90 mm across. The occurrence of synziphosurines with eurypterids mirrors previously described preservational associations.
Kurzfassung: Die ursprunglich als Eurypterids beschriebene Willwerathia laticeps (Stormer, 1936) wird nunmehr als Angehörige der Synziphosurina erkannt und der Familie Weinberginidae Richter and Richter, 1929 zurgeordnet. Unter Berücksichtigung aller erhaltlichen Daten läßt sich an neu aufgesammelten, zumeist disartikuliertem Material von der Lokalität aus der der verschollene Holotypus stammt, darauf schließen, daß das Opisthosoma von Willwerathia zehn Tergite umfaßte. Mit einer Carapax-Breite von etwa 90 mm war Willwerathia laticeps die größte bisher bekannte Synziphosurinen und Eurypteriden bestätigt die Erkenntnisse über bereits fruher beschriebene Taphozönosen.
The synziphosurine (Chelicerata, Xiphosura) Cyamocephalus loganensis Currie, 1927 is known from two specimens from the UK: one from the Lesmahagow inlier, Scotland and another from Leintwardine, England. A third specimen, newly identified in the collections of the Oxford University Museum, is described here, and a morphological reconstruction of Cyamocephalus is presented for the first time.
Exceptionally preserved fossils are described from the Westhoughton opencast coal pit near Wigan, Lancashire, UK (uppermost Westphalian A, Lower Modiolaris Chronozone, regularis faunal belt). The fossils occur within sideritic concretions in a 1.5-metre zone above the Wigan Four Foot coal seam. Arthropods dominate the fauna and include arachnids, arthropleurids, crustaceans, eurypterids, euthycarcinoids, millipedes and xiphosurans. Vertebrates are represented by a single palaeoniscid fish, numerous disarticulated scales and coprolites. Upright Sigillaria trees, massive bedded units and a general lack of trace fossils in the roof shales of the Wigan Four Foot coal seam suggests that deposition of the beds containing these concretions was relatively rapid. Discovery of similar faunas at the equivalent stratigraphic level some distance away point to regional rather than localized controls on exceptional preservation.
Anderson, L. I. 1994a "Chasmataspid.....Caithness"
Last modified 15 February 2004